Il test del Psa è utile nello screening per il tumore della prostata?
If you have any concerns, discuss them with your doctor or specialist nurse before test della prostata TRUS decide whether to have a biopsy.
You may be given some antibiotics to take before your biopsy, either as tablets or an injection, to help prevent infection. You might also be given some antibiotic tablets to take at home after your biopsy. This test della prostata TRUS the most common type of biopsy in the UK. The doctor or nurse uses a thin needle to take small samples of tissue from the prostate. The doctor or nurse will put an ultrasound probe into your back passage rectumusing a gel to make it more comfortable.
The ultrasound probe scans the prostate and an test della prostata TRUS appears on a screen. The doctor or nurse uses this image to guide where they take the cells from. You will have an injection of local test della prostata TRUS to numb the area around your prostate and reduce any discomfort. The doctor or nurse then puts a needle next to the probe in your back passage and inserts it through the wall of the back passage into the prostate. They usually take 10 to 12 small pieces of tissue from different areas of the prostate.
But, if the doctor is using the images from your MRI scan to guide the needle, they may take fewer samples. The biopsy takes 5 to 10 minutes. After your test della prostata TRUS, your doctor test della prostata TRUS ask you to wait until you've urinated before you go home. This is because the biopsy can cause the prostate to swell, test della prostata TRUS they'll want to make sure you can urinate properly before you leave.
This is where the doctor inserts the biopsy needle into the prostate through test della prostata TRUS skin between the testicles and the back passage perineum. But many hospitals have stopped doing TRUS biopsies and now only do transperineal biopsies.
The doctor will put an ultrasound probe into your back passage, using a gel to make this easier. An image of the prostate test della prostata TRUS appear on a screen, which will help the doctor to guide the biopsy needle. This is known as a targeted biopsy. Or they might decide to take up to 25 samples from different areas of the prostate. You may hear this called a template biopsy, test della prostata TRUS the doctor places a grid template over the area of skin between the testicles and back passage.
They then insert the needle through the holes in test della prostata TRUS grid, into the prostate. A transperineal biopsy usually takes about 20 to 40 minutes.
If you've had a general anaesthetic, you will need to wait a few hours to recover from the anaesthetic before going home. And you will need to get someone to take you home. Having a biopsy can cause side effects. These will affect each man differently, and you may not test della prostata TRUS all of the possible side effects. Some men feel pain or discomfort in their back passage rectum for a few days after a TRUS biopsy. Others feel a dull ache along the underside of their penis or lower abdomen stomach area.
If you have a transperineal biopsy, you may get some bruising and discomfort in the area where test della prostata TRUS needle went in for a few days afterwards. If you receive anal sex, wait about two weeks, or until any pain or discomfort from your biopsy has settled, before having sex again. Ask your doctor or nurse at the hospital for further advice.
Some men find the biopsy painful, but others have only slight discomfort. Your nurse or doctor may suggest taking mild pain-relieving drugs, such as paracetamol, to help with any pain. You may also notice blood in your semen for a couple of months — it might look red or dark brown. This is normal and should get test della prostata TRUS by itself. If it takes longer to clear up, or gets worse, you should see a doctor straight away. A small number of men less than 1 in who have a TRUS biopsy may have more serious bleeding in their urine or from their back passage rectum.
This can also happen if you have a transperineal biopsy but it isn't very common. If you have severe bleeding or are passing lots of blood clots, this is not normal. Some men get an infection after their biopsy.
This is more likely after a TRUS biopsy than after a transperineal biopsy. But you might still get an infection even if you take antibiotics. If you have any of these symptoms, contact your doctor or test della prostata TRUS at the hospital straight away. Around 3 in men three per cent who have a TRUS biopsy get a more serious infection that requires going to hospital. If the infection spreads into your blood, it can be very serious.
This is called sepsis. Symptoms of sepsis may include:. This happens because the biopsy can cause the prostate to swell, making it difficult to urinate. Acute urine retention may be more likely if you have a template biopsy. This is because more samples are taken, so there may be more swelling.
Your doctor will make sure you can urinate before you go home after your biopsy. You might need a catheter for a few days. You can masturbate and have sex after a biopsy. If you have blood in your semen, you might want to use a condom until the bleeding stops.
A small number of men have problems getting or keeping an erection erectile dysfunction after having a biopsy. This may happen if the nerves that control erections are damaged during the biopsy. The biopsy samples will be looked at under a microscope to check for any cancer cells. Your doctor will be sent a report, called a pathology report, with the results. The results will show whether any cancer was found. They may also show how many biopsy samples contained cancer and how much cancer test della prostata TRUS present in each sample.
It can take up to two weeks to get the results of the biopsy. Ask your doctor or nurse when you're likely to get the results. You might be sent a copy of the pathology report. And you can ask to see copies of letters between the hospital and your GP. If you have trouble understanding any of the information, ask your doctor to explain it or speak to our Specialist Nurses.
I asked to see the letters from the hospital to my GP. If cancer is found, this is likely to be a big shock, and you might not remember everything your doctor or nurse tells you. It can help to take a family member, partner or friend with you for support when you get the results. You could also ask them to make some notes during the appointment. It could help to ask your doctor if you can record the appointment using your phone or another recording test della prostata TRUS.
But let test della prostata TRUS doctor or nurse know if and why you are recording them as not everyone is comfortable being recorded. Your biopsy results will show how aggressive the cancer is — in other words, how likely it is to spread outside the prostate. You might hear this called your Gleason grade, Gleason score, or grade group. The pattern is given a grade from 1 to 5 — this is called the Gleason grade.
Grades 1 and 2 are not included on pathology reports as they are similar to normal cells. If you have prostate cancer, you will have Gleason grades of 3, 4 and 5. The higher the grade, the more likely the cancer is to spread outside the prostate. There may be more than one grade of cancer in the biopsy samples. An overall Gleason score is worked out by adding together two Gleason grades. The first is the most common grade in all the samples.
When these two grades are added together, the total is called the Gleason score. Your doctor might also talk about your "grade group". This is a new system for showing how aggressive your prostate cancer is likely to be.
Your grade group will be a number between 1 and 5 see table. The higher your Gleason score or grade group, the more aggressive the cancer and the more likely it is to grow and spread.
We've explained the different Gleason scores and grade groups that can be given after a prostate biopsy below. This is just a guide. Your doctor or nurse will talk you through what your results mean. There are some cancer cells that look likely to grow test della prostata TRUS a moderate rate grade group 2. There are some cancer cells that look likely to grow slowly grade group 3.