What is Aquablation of the prostate using the AQUABEAM system?
Benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH is the most common prostate problem in older men. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Panax ginseng C. Meyer P. The group treated Se BPH 1-2 gradi P. In addition, P. These results suggest Se BPH 1-2 gradi P. Benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH is a common urological disease in aged men. It is characterized by benign enlargement of the prostate. The male urethra runs through the prostate, and therefore an enlarged prostate may constrict the urethra and cause lower urinary tract symptoms LUTSincluding difficult and weak urination, frequent voiding, nocturia, dysuria, and bladder obstruction [ 1 ].
These symptoms can negatively affect the quality of life of BPH patients. BPH generally does not occur before the age of 30, but it often develops Se BPH 1-2 gradi the ages of 30 and Late treatment of prostatic hyperplasia leads to several issues, such as acute urinary Se BPH 1-2 gradi, renal insufficiency, urinary tract infection, gross hematuria, bladder stones, and kidney failure [ 345 ].
Although the pathogenesis of BPH is not exact, previous studies have reported that sex hormones, including androgen, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone DHTcontribute to BPH development.
For BPH patients, two main treatment options exist: 5-alpha reductase inhibitors and alphaadrenergic receptor antagonists [ 6 ]. DHT, a highly active metabolite of testosterone that is synthesized by the prostate 5-alpha reductase enzyme, is Se BPH 1-2 gradi to be a major contributor to BPH pathology [ 7 ].
Hence, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors such as finasteride and dutasteride have been used to treat BPH [ 8 ]. Alphaadrenergic receptors exist in the prostate, urethra, bladder, vascular tissues, and central nervous system [ 9 ]. Alphaadrenergic receptors are found in approximately Alphaadrenergic receptor antagonists, such as alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, have been used to reduce the symptoms of BPH [ 10 ].
However, these drugs can produce undesirable side effects including erectile dysfunction, loss of libido, dizziness, severe myopathy, and chest pain [ 11 ]. Recent studies have suggested that commonly used herbal agents may effectively treat BPH or inhibit the development of BPH.
The extract consists of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and steroids. Melandrium firmum extract was also found to be effective against BPH development; it was found to contain some sapogenins, saponin, flavonoids, and triterpenoids [ 13 ]. Moreover, Bae et al. Saponins and ginsenoids are the major constituents of P. Ginseng is the commonly known name of the root of P. Hence, in this study, we evaluated the effect of P. It was then filtered through muslin cloth and lyophilized.
The resulting powder yield, 32 g was dissolved in distilled water and sequentially passed through 0. The testes of the rats in the BPH and the P. All materials were administered to the animals once daily for 4 weeks, and body weight was measured weekly.
After 4 weeks, all animals were fasted overnight. After the animals were sacrificed, the tissue of prostate was stored in formaldehyde solution for light microscopic observation. At the end of the experiment, the food was removed and experiments were performed between 9 AM and 12 PM. Blood samples were obtained from the heart of the rats at the end of the experiment. The sections were mounted and cover slipped using mounting solution and then examined under a microscope.
Prostate epithelial thickness was measured. Microwave antigen retrieval was performed in citrate buffer, Se BPH 1-2 gradi 6. Sections were then washed in water and preblocked with normal goat or rabbit serum for 10 minutes.
The sections were then incubated with biotinylated secondary antibodiesfor 1 hour. Following a washing step with PBS, streptodavidin-horseradish peroxidase was applied. Finally, the sections were rinsed in PBS and developed with diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride substrate for 10 minutes. Primers for reverse transcription reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR analysis were designed.
Significant differences between the groups were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance Se BPH 1-2 gradifollowed by a nonparametric post hoc Tukey test. Body weight change is shown in Table 1. Final body weight was measured after 30 days, and each group showed an increase compared to their initial body weight Se BPH 1-2 gradi group, BPH, benign prostatic hyperplasia; P.
The BPH group displayed lower glucose levels than the control group Table 2. The plasma glucose levels of the P. Total protein levels in the serum of the BPH group were slightly elevated compared to those of the control, untreated group.
The total protein levels of the P. Prostate weight, volume, and weight ratio are shown in Table 3. The prostate weight of the BPH group 1. The prostate volume of the BPH group 1. The prostate weight ratio of the BPH group 0. Se BPH 1-2 gradi shown in Fig.
The epithelial cell layer and stromal cell space in the BPH group were larger than those of the control Se BPH 1-2 gradi. Compared to the BPH group, the P. At 4 weeks, the P. However, to our knowledge, no study has evaluated its inhibitory effect on BPH and the underlying mechanism. In this study, we observed the inhibitory effect Se BPH 1-2 gradi P. Alphaadrenergic receptors play important roles in the regulation of prostatic smooth muscle.
These receptors have been classified into three subtypes, that is, Adra1a, Adra1b, and Adra1d, and have been observed in various tissues, such as the prostate, urethra, bladder, and ureter.
These receptor subtypes are differentially localized in human prostate tissue. No difference was observed between the expression of Adra1a and Adra1b in the prostate tissue of control rats and Se BPH 1-2 gradi rats [ 24 ]. Se BPH 1-2 gradi with BPH showed significantly higher Adra1d expression than normal rats. It has been suggested that Adra1d may play a significant role in prostate growth in BPH [ 24 ].
There is also evidence that Adra1d is related to mitogen activated kinase-like protein, which mediates cell growth [ 25 ]. The mechanism underlying the effect of P. In this study, we observed increased Adra1d Se BPH 1-2 gradi in the prostate tissue of BPH, and oral administration of P.
In addition, we observed that the action of P. Alphaadrenergic receptors also regulate growth and proliferation in various cells. Testosterone or DHT binds to nuclear androgen receptors on the surface of stromal and epithelial cells. It promotes the transcription of growth factors, including epidermal growth factor EGF [ Se BPH 1-2 gradi27 ]. It regulates diverse biological processes in cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis [ 28 ].
Harper et al. Abnormal apoptosis is a known factor in the etiology of BPH. BCL2 is present in normal basal epithelial cells of the prostate gland and is expressed at significantly higher levels in BPH compared to those in normal prostate tissue. Iacopino et al. We found that P. These observations indicate that P. Sathishkumar et al.
They showed that P. Fu et al. To summarize, orally administered P. These findings indicate that P. Thus, P. Further studies are required to confirm the involvement of other alphaadrenergic receptors and EGF pathways in BPH. No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
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